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Gladiola, floarea gladiatorului, floarea victoriei

Numele latin al acestei flori este Gladiolus (la plural, Gladioli), un diminutiv al cuvantului gladius, „sabie”. Desigur, numele i-a fost dat datorita formei frunzelor sale, care seamana cu niste sabii. Uneori, gladiolei i se mai spune si crin sabie, iar in Antichitate era poreclita „floarea gladiatorului”. De altfel, cuvantul gladiator vine tot de la gladius, caci acesta era un luptator „care traia si murea prin sabie”. La noi, gladiolei i se mai spune sabiuta.

 

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Gladiola e cunoscuta de mii de ani in regiunea Marii Mediterane, in nordul Africii si in Orientul Mijlociu, unde crestea spontan. Unii spun ca acei „crini din vale” amintiti in Vechiul Testament sunt, de fapt, gladiole. Grecii si romanii o apreciau foarte mult, considerand-o o planta puternica, o planta a victoriei si a norocului si fiind convinsi ca bulbii ei au puteri magice si ii pot feri de moarte in lupta. De aceea, soldatii romani purtau la gat bulbi de gladiola ca pe niste amulete. Aceasta credinta a rezistat pana in secolul al XVIII-lea, cand in Europa se vindeau la negru bulbi de gladiola ca amulete care te feresc de moarte.

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Gladiolele sunt plante perene inrudite cu irisii, facand parte din aceeasi familie, Iridaceae. Foarte importante pentru horticultura, grupul lor cuprinde astazi 260 de specii, majoritatea provenind din Africa. Gladiolele au fost apreciate mai intai ca plante de leac si abia mai tarziu ca plante decorative.

Gladiola este cea mai usor de plantat floare dintre toate plantele care se introduc in pamant de la stadiul de bulb si tocmai de acea este recomandata gradinarilor incepatori sau celor care vor sa isi infrumuseteze gradina sau curtea. Odata ce ai cumparat bulbii de gladiola, trebuie sa te uiti care este partea mai ascutita, mai alungita a bulbului, iar aceea va fi partea care va trebui sa fie plantata in sus, zona cealalta fiind partea de unde vor iesi radacinile.

gladiole 3

 

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Bulbii de gladiole nu trebuie plantate la o adancime foarte mare, deoarece vei risca ca bulbul sa putrezeasca si astfel se va distruge inainte de a incolti. O adancime de 4-6 cm este suficienta pentru plantarea gladiolelor, dupa care sa acoperi bulbul cu un sol bine fertilizat, deoarece planta va avea nevoie de nutrienti pentru a incolti. Odata ce ai plantat bulbul in pamant, nu iti ramane decat sa uzi bine de tot pamantul si sa te asiguri ca va fi mereu udat, imediat ce pamantul s-a uscat complet. Gladiolele au o capacitate de adaptare foarte mare la temperaturi care variaza mult, de la cald la rece si invers, insa nu prefera un mediu foarte umed.

foto: Pinterest

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  54. […] Gladiola, o încântare pentru ochi. Printre cele mai populare și mai frumoase flori de toamnă pentru grădină se afla și eleganta gladiola, dovedindu-se o adevărată hrana pentru suflet și o încântare pentru ochi. O poți găsi într-o paletă largă de nuanțe și vei fi surprinsă să observi cât de repede se adaptează mediului din jur. Ea nu necesită să fie udată des, însă are nevoie ca solul să fie afânat și să nu existe buruieni în jurul ei. Gladiolele îşi au originea în Africa de Sud şi se spune despre ele că ar fi florile aventurierilor. Au dimensiuni cuprinse între 50 şi 100 de cm şi o gamă de culori destul de variată. Gladiolele sunt mari iubitoare de soare. Despre gladiole am mai scris aici. […]

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