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Câteva motive ştiinţifice care dovedesc faptul că berea poate avea efecte benefice în raport cu sănătatea. Însă atunci când este consumată moderat!

Mi-e teamă că ultima mențiune din titlu a creat puțină confuzie în rândul vostru și ca să nu dați buzna pe net în căutarea de explicații, am decis să clarific lucrurile din capul locului. Consum moderat este o sintagmă familiară folosită foarte des în articole care promovează un stil de viață sănătos, bazat pe o alimentație echilibrată. Dacă poate în cazul altor alimente acest tip de consum nu poate fi clar precizat, în cazul berii există foarte bine definită o cantitate care vă permite nu doar să savurați băutura voastră favorită, dar să vă și bucurați de posibilele ei beneficii pentru sănătate. Sursa datelor este chiar Organizația Mondială a Sănătății care stabilește consumul moderat de bere la 660 ml/zi pentru bărbați și 330 ml/zi pentru femei, în cazul berii cu o concentrație de alcool de 5%.   

 

 

Cred că este o informație extrem de utilă pentru că ne ajută să decidem ce este mai bine pentru organismul nostru, în cunoștință de cauză. 

Deși datele fizice ale fiecăruia dintre noi sunt diferite, pornind de la vârstă și sex la înălțime și greutate,  cercetătorii au reușit să definească acea cantitate de bere care ne menține într-o zonă de consum care nu e doar lipsită de riscuri pentru sănătate, dar care poate avea chiar o serie de beneficii dovedite științific. Indiferent de sex, relația dintre consumul de alcool, în cazul nostru bere, și efectele asupra sănătății poate fi reprezentată printr-o curbă de forma literei „J”, din care rezultă faptul că dacă ne menținem în zona consumului moderat putem obține chiar beneficii pentru sănătate, în timp ce orice cantitate de alcool consumată peste acest nivel, mergând până la consumul de alcool de tip abuziv, ne plasează într-o zonă cu riscuri reale pentru sănătate.

 

 

 

Revenind la datele fizice ale fiecăruia dintre noi, pot să vă spun că alcoolul afectează femeile diferit față de bărbați în principal datorită compoziției corporale diferite și a greutății corporale medii mai mici.

Femeile au un procent mai mare de grăsimi în corpul lor și deci un procent mai mic de fluide. Deoarece alcoolul este solubil în apă, se distribuie doar în lichidul corporal. Femeile vor avea așadar niveluri maxime mai ridicate de alcoolemie decât bărbații, pentru aceeași cantitate de alcool consumată. Alte mecanisme posibile pentru a explica diferențele de gen în concentrația de alcool din sânge includ diferențele dintre metabolismul relativ al alcoolului, interacțiunea alcool-dehidrogenazei (ADH) cu hormonii sexuali feminini, nivelurile mai mici de ADH gastric și un metabolism mai rapid la nivelul ficatului la femei. 

 

Deci informează-te întotdeauna pentru a putea alege în cunoștință de cauză  ceea ce este cel mai bine pentru tine, chiar și în cazul băuturilor alcoolice 

 

Conform datelor unui studiu în rândul populației efectuat pe durata a cinci ani. Subiecții cu un obicei stabil de consum redus sau moderat de alcool (12 – 72 g de alcool pe săptămână) au prezentat riscul cel mai scăzut de mortalitate din orice cauză. Acele persoane care au început să bea mai puțin sau acelea care au început să bea mai mult au avut un risc relativ mai mare cu 29% și respectiv cu 32% în timpul monitorizării. 

Relația dintre consumul de alcool și sindromul metabolic (dereglare metabolică ce este cauzată de obezitatea  abdominală care creează rezistență la insulină), urmează aceeași curbă „J” potrivit a două metaanalize. Astfel, se înregistrează un risc redus asociat consumului scăzut de alcool și risc mai mare asociat consumului abuziv de alcool.

 

Chiar dacă nivelul de consum de alcool pentru un efect benefic variază, relația dintre consumul de alcool și sindromului metabolic pare să fie reprezentată prin curba „J” potrivit a două metaanalize, cu risc redus asociat consumului scăzut de alcool și risc mai mare asociat consumului abuziv de alcool.

 

 

 

Una dintre cele două metaanalize a arătat că un consum de alcool de mai puțin de 40 g pe zi la bărbați și 20 g pe zi la femei comparativ cu abstinenții reduce prevalența sindromului metabolic cu 16%, respectiv 25%. Cealaltă a arătat un risc relativ de sindrom metabolic redus cu 14% datorită unui consum foarte scăzut de alcool (0,1 – 5,0 g pe zi), dar un risc crescut cu 86% în cazul consumului de mai mult de 35 g de alcool pe zi.

 

  • Relația dintre consumul de alcool și riscul mortalității cauzate de bolile cardiovasculare (BCV) este reprezentată la rândul său prin curba „J”. Cel mai scăzut risc de mortalitate cauzată de BCV se observă la un consum de alcool de 15 – 30 g pe zi (risc relativ mai mic cu 25%), dar rămâne tot scăzut la cantități consumate de până la 60 g pe zi comparativ cu persoanele abstinente. 

 

Studiile în rândul populației arată o relație între consumul de alcool și riscul apariției diabetului de tip 2 caracterizată tot prin curba „J”. Comparativ cu cei care nu consumă băuturi alcoolice, consumul de până la 24 g de alcool pe zi este asociat cu un risc relativ mai mic cu 30% în medie pentru diabetul de tip 2. Pare să existe o diferență accentuată între sexe, efectul fiind mai pronunțat la femei decât la bărbați. S-a descoperit că posibilele efecte protectoare sunt de până la 25% pentru bărbați și de până la 45% pentru femei.

 

 

  • Curba „J” privind relația dintre consumul de alcool și riscul atacului cerebral arată că cel mai scăzut risc relativ (un risc mai mic cu aproximativ 20%) este la o cantitate de alcool consumată de până la 15 g de alcool pe zi și crește atunci când consumul depășește 15 g pe zi.
  • Relația dintre greutatea corporală și consumul de alcool este complexă și implică nu numai cantitatea și tipul de alcool consumat, ci și obiceiurile de consum, sexul, tipul băuturii și stilul de viață care pot juca un rol. Dar am o veste bună pentru voi: berea este o băutură cu un aport caloric relativ scăzut, de 105 kcal în cazul unui pahar de 250 ml. Dacă ne referim la berea fără alcool, lucrurile stau și mai bine, pentru că un pahar de 250 ml are doar 50 kcal. Deci vă puteți bucura în voie de băutura voastră favorită, fără să vă fie teamă că silueta voastră ar putea avea de suferit. 

 

Deși consumul moderat de bere ar putea avea efecte benefice asupra sănătății, nu trebuie să consumați bere în cantități moderate pentru un stil de viață sănătos. Pentru a asigura un stil de viață sănătos, Organizația Mondială a Sănătății (OMS) recomandă un consum ridicat de fructe și legume, reducerea aportului de grăsimi, zahăr și sare, și mișcare.

 

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